世衛組織稱消滅瘧疾有望 但可能尚需時日

    From VOA Learning English, this is the Health and Lifestyle report.
    這裏是美國之音慢速英語健康和生活報道。

    The World Health Organization (WHO) says it is possible to defeat the disease malaria, although that is not likely to happen with the current methods.
    世衛組織表示,人類有可能戰勝瘧疾,雖然憑借現有辦法尚不太可能實現。

    Pedro Alonso directs the United Nations agency's global malaria program. He says the WHO wants to eradicate the disease but "with the tools we have today, it is most unlikely eradication will be achieved."
    佩德羅·阿隆索是世衛組織全球瘧疾項目主任。他說,世衛組織希望消滅這種疾病,但是“憑借現有工具,幾乎不可能實現消滅該疾病的目標。”

    Alonso spoke last week as he presented the results of a three-year long study on the fight against the disease.
    阿隆索上周發表了講話,他介紹了一項曆經3年對抗擊瘧疾的研究成果。

    Malaria infected around 219 million people in 2017. That year about 435,000 people died from the disease. The large majority were babies and children in the poorest areas of Africa. These totals are little changed from 2016. But the numbers are smaller than the 239 million infections and 607,000 deaths reported in 2010.
    2017年瘧疾感染了約2.19億人。當年大約有43.5萬人死于這種疾病。其中絕大多數是非洲最貧困地區的嬰幼兒。該總體數據跟2016年相比變化甚微。但是這一數字要低于2010年報告的2.39億人感染和60.7萬人死亡。

    Abdourahmane Diallo is head of the RBM Partnership to End Malaria. The group released a statement from him on the WHO report. It said, "Today, there are more countries without malaria than with (it), and more countries than ever have fewer than 10,000 malaria cases, putting elimination within reach."
    阿蔔杜拉赫曼·迪亞洛是遏制瘧疾夥伴關系的負責人。該組織公布了迪亞洛對世衛組織這份報告的聲明。聲明稱:“今天,有更多國家沒有瘧疾,瘧疾病例少于1萬人的國家也比以往任何時候都要多,這使得消滅瘧疾的目標觸手可及。”

    Diallo noted that in some areas, malaria cases are increasing, showing a need "to reignite and accelerate progress".
    迪亞洛指出,一些地區的瘧疾病例有所上升,這表明需要“重新激活和加速這一進程。”

    WHO officials have long wanted to destroy malaria. The United Nations agency first attempted a campaign against the disease in 1955 before suspending it in the 1960s. Now, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is providing financial support for the latest efforts.
    世衛組織官員長期以來一直希望消滅瘧疾。這家聯合國機構于1955年首次嘗試開展抗擊瘧疾的運動,直到上世紀60年代暫停運動。如今,比爾和梅琳達蓋茨基金會正在爲抗擊瘧疾的最新努力提供資金支持。

    Tools to fight malaria
    抗擊瘧疾的工具

    There are a number of drugs available to successfully treat malaria. Sleeping under chemically-treated bed nets has proven to be effective in order to control malaria-carrying mosquitoes and infections.
    目前有很多藥物可以治愈瘧疾。睡在經過化學處理的蚊帳裏已被證實可以有效控制攜帶瘧疾病毒的蚊蟲和感染。

    The drug company GSK has also developed a vaccine that has proven partially effective against malaria. The vaccine is currently used in Ghana and Malawi.
    葛蘭素史克制藥公司也研制出了一種疫苗,經證實該疫苗對瘧疾部分有效。這種疫苗目前被用在加納和馬拉維。

    But the WHO's report says these tools will not be enough to end the threat from malaria altogether. It calls for research and development of "transformative tools and knowledge" to control mosquitoes and create more effective medicines to prevent and treat the disease.
    但是世衛組織的報告稱,這些工具都不足以消除瘧疾帶來的威脅。它呼籲研發“革命性的工具和科學知識”來控制蚊蟲,並創造出更有效的藥物來預防和治療這種疾病。

    The report says less than 1% of international financing for health research and development now goes to developing tools to fight malaria.
    該報告稱,目前只有不到1%的國際衛生研發資金用于開發抗擊瘧疾的工具。

    "Our priority...should be to establish the foundation for a successful future eradication effort while guarding against the risk of failure that would lead to the waste of huge sums of money...," the report said.
    報告稱:“我們的首要任務應該是爲未來成功根除工作奠定基礎,同時防範會導致巨額資金浪費的失敗的風險。”

    Has any disease ever been eradicated?
    什麽疾病已被徹底消滅?

    Smallpox is the only human disease to ever have been eradicated. Thanks to the success of vaccinations, the WHO declared the disease eradicated in 1980. Since then, no natural cases of smallpox have been reported.
    天花是目前唯一被根除的人類疾病。得益于疫苗的成功,世衛組織在1980年宣布消滅了天花。自那以後再沒報告過自然發生的天花病例。

    In 1988, WHO and health partners launched an international campaign to defeat polio by 2000. But even with billions of invested dollars, the efforts have repeatedly missed eradication targets.
    1988年,世衛組織和衛生合作夥伴發起了在2000年前消滅小兒麻痹症的全球行動。但是即使投入了數十億美元,這一努力也一再錯失消滅小兒麻痹症的目標。

    "An effective vaccine is something we desperately need if we're ever going to get malaria under control and we just don't have it," said Alister Craig of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.
    利物浦熱帶醫學院的阿裏斯特·克雷格表示:“如果要控制瘧疾,我們就迫切需要一種有效的疫苗,我們缺的就是它。”

    Craig wondered whether malaria programs would be able to raise the money needed given other competing eradication campaigns, including those for polio and guinea worm.
    考慮到要和包括小兒麻痹症以及麥地那龍線蟲等疾病消滅運動競爭,克雷格想知道瘧疾項目是否能夠籌集到所需資金。

    Sian Clarke is co-director of the malaria center at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. She says that since mosquitoes spread malaria by infecting people with a parasite, eradication might only be possible if there is a sense of urgency.
    希恩·克拉克是倫敦衛生與熱帶醫學院瘧疾中心的聯合主任。她說,由于蚊蟲通過寄生蟲感染人類來傳播瘧疾,因此只有存在緊迫感,才有可能根除這種疾病。

    "The longer it takes, the more opportunity there is for the parasite to evolve," she said. "So this is something that if it's to be done, should be done relatively quickly."
    她說:“耗費的時間越長,寄生蟲就越有機會進化。因此如果想要做到這點,就要相對較快地完成。”

    And that's the Health and Lifestyle Report.
    以上就是本期慢速英語健康和生活的全部內容。

    I'm Anna Matteo.
    我是安娜·馬特奧。(51VOA.COM原創翻譯,禁止轉載,違者必究!)