中美貿易戰讓越南墨西哥受益

    As with any war, there are winners and losers. That is also the case with the trade war between China and the United States.
    任何戰爭都有贏家和輸家。中國和美國之間的貿易戰也是如此。

    As the two sides battle, companies affected by high tariffs are looking to manufacture their products elsewhere. So businesses operating in other countries are experiencing economic growth.
    由于兩國的鬥爭,受高關稅影響的公司開始尋求在其它國家生産他們的産品。因此在其它國家經營的企業開始面臨經濟增長。

    Two factories in Vietnam manufacture electric bicycles for Pedego, an American company based in California. About 80 percent of Pedego's bicycle parts once came from China, but not anymore.
    越南的兩家工廠爲總部位于美國加州的Pedego公司代工電動自行車。Pedego公司的自行車零部件曾經有大約80%來自中國,但是現在情況不同了。

    "Now, we're probably 70 percent in Vietnam, and 30 percent in Taiwan," said Don DiCostanzo. He is a co-founder of the company and its chief executive officer.
    唐·迪科斯坦佐說:“現在,我們的零部件差不多70%來自越南,30%來自中國台灣。”他是該公司的聯合創始人兼首席執行官。

    Shift to Vietnam
    轉移到越南

    In February 2018, DiCostanzo decided to move production to Vietnam because of the threat of high European Union tariffs on Chinese-made electric bikes. Production in Vietnam started seven months later, in September. That was the same month the U.S government ordered tariffs on Chinese-made products that included electric bikes.
    2018年2月,由于歐盟威脅要對中國生産的電動自行車征收高額關稅,迪科斯坦佐決定將生産轉移到越南。7個月之後,也就是當年9月越南開始生産。就在同月,美國政府下令對包括電動自行車在內的中國制造産品征收關稅。

    "We then were immediately able to accelerate that production," DiCostanza said. "And we began producing bikes in Vietnam for this country (the U.S.) in September right after the tariffs went in place, and by Jan. 1, (2019), we eliminated all production in China and managed to move all of our production...to Vietnam."
    迪科斯坦佐表示:“我們當時立即能夠加快生産。在9月關稅生效之後,我們就開始在越南生産自行車出口到美國。到了2019年1月1日,我們取消了在中國的所有生産,並設法將我們的所有生産轉移到了越南。”

    By the beginning of 2019, the factories in Vietnam were producing bicycles for Pedego. While some parts are still coming from China, DiCostanzo kept looking in other countries for those parts. In time, Pedego's need for Chinese-manufactured parts slowly decreased.
    到2019年初,越南工廠開始爲Pedego生産自行車。雖然有些 零部件仍然來自中國,但是迪科斯坦佐一直在其它國家尋找這些零部件。隨著時間推移,Pedego對中國制造零部件的需要逐漸降低。

    Trade war helps Vietnam and Mexico
    貿易戰讓越南和墨西哥受益

    Pedego is not the only company moving manufacturing away from China because of the trade war.
    Pedego並非唯一一家將生産從中國轉移出去的公司。

    The U.S.-based company GoPro moved production of cameras for the American market from China to Mexico in June. GoPro said it made the move because of "possible tariffs as well as recognize some cost savings and efficiencies."
    總部位于美國的GoPro公司將銷往美國市場的相機的生産從中國轉移到了墨西哥。GoPro公司表示,此舉是因爲“潛在關稅以及意識到一些成本節約和效率。”

    GoPro's cameras for markets other than the United States continue to be made in China.
    GoPro公司銷往美國以外市場的相機仍在中國生産。

    "The two countries that are benefiting the most are Vietnam and Mexico...And everybody else is looking at them with envy," said Kevin Klowden. He heads the Center for Regional Economics at the Milken Institute, a research center based in Santa Monica, California.
    凱文·克洛登表示:“受益最大的兩個國家是越南和墨西哥。大家都羨慕地看著他們。”克洛登是總部位于加州聖莫尼卡市的米爾肯研究所區域經濟中心的負責人。

    The U.S. Census Bureau reports that goods imported from Mexico increased by more than 6 percent for the first six months of 2019, compared to the same time in 2018. It said imports from Vietnam during that same period rose by more than 33 percent. Chinese imports for the same period decreased by more than 12 percent.
    美國人口普查局報告稱,與2018年同期相比,2019年前6個月美國從墨西哥進口的商品增加了6%以上。該機構表示,美國同期從越南進口的商品增長了33%以上,從中國的進口減少了12%以上。

    "The Vietnamese government has done a (great) job of making themselves ready and available...as a direct competitor to China for a while, particularly on cost," Klowden said.
    克洛登表示:“越南政府幹得很棒,讓該國做好了准備,暫時成爲了中國直接的競爭對手,尤其是在成本方面。”

    DiCostanzo said he found the quality of products from Vietnam was better than those from China.
    迪科斯坦佐表示,他發現越南産品的質量要優于中國。

    Return manufacturing to US
    制造業重返美國

    Manufacturing and outsourcing products in a worldwide economy is a tricky business, however. Unusual weather, political unrest or even the appearance of a less costly competitor can cause businesses to turn to a different manufacturer.
    然而,在全球經濟中,制造業和外包市場是一項棘手的生意。異常天氣、政治動蕩甚至是成本更低的競爭對手的出現,都會導致企業轉向不同的制造商。

    "Manufacturing has shown itself to be mobile in a way that we never could have imagined years ago," Klowden said.
    克洛登表示:“制造業已經證明了自身的流動方式是我們多年前從未想象過的。”

    Some companies in the United States, such as Pedego, would like to manufacture their products in a U.S. community some day.
    Pedego之類的一些美國公司希望有一天能夠在美國生産自己的産品。

    "A number of companies would like to move manufacturing back to the U.S. just...because of stability. (But) manufacturing that moves back to the U.S. employs...fewer people than it would have 20, 30 years ago," Klowden explained.
    克洛登解釋說:“因爲穩定,許多公司希望將制造業遷回美國。但是與二三十年前相比,遷回美國的制造業所雇傭的員工已大幅減少。”

    Any business that manufactures in the U.S. and can successfully compete in the current economy would use robots.
    任何在美國生産並能夠在當前經濟下成功競爭的企業都會使用機器人。

    "These robots, you don't have to pay them overtime, and they don't have to take time off, and they work 24/7," Pedego's DiCostanzo said.
    Pedego公司的克洛登表示:“這些機器人不要加班費,不用休假,他們全天候地工作。”

    I'm Susan Shand.
    我是蘇珊·善德。(51VOA.COM原創翻譯,禁止轉載,違者必究!)