科學家在北極雪中發現大量微塑料顆粒

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Scientists say they have found high levels of small plastic particles in Arctic snow. Their findings provide more evidence that plastic is entering Earth's atmosphere and traveling great distances around the planet.
科學家們表示,他們在北極雪中發現了大量的微塑料顆粒。他們的研究爲塑料進入地球大氣層並飄向遠方提供了更多證據。

A new report describing the discovery was published in Science Advances.
一篇描述這一發現的報告發表在《科學進展》雜志上。

A German-Swiss research team collected snow samples from the Arctic and other areas. They included northern Germany, the Bavarian and Swiss Alps, and the North Sea island of Heligoland.
德國和瑞士的一個研究小組收集了北極等地區的雪樣。這些地區包括德國北部巴伐利亞和瑞士境內的阿爾卑斯山脈,以及北海的黑爾戈蘭島。

When the researchers examined the samples in a laboratory, they were surprised to find very high levels of microplastics.
當研究人員在實驗室檢查這些雪樣時,他們驚訝地發現了非常高含量的微塑料。

Microplastics are very small pieces of plastic. These plastic particles are generally smaller than 5 millimeters in length. Other studies have found microplastics in the environment. They come from the disposal and breakdown of man-made plastic products and industrial waste.
微塑料是極其微小的塑料碎片。這些塑料顆粒的直徑通常小于5毫米。其它研究已經在環境中發現微塑料。它們來自于人造塑料制品和工業廢料的處理和分解。

Melanie Bergmann co-wrote the report on the new study. She told The Associated Press that while her team did expect to find some microplastics in the samples, they were surprised by the very large amounts.
梅拉尼·貝格曼共同撰寫了關于這項新研究的報告。她對美聯社表示,雖然她的團隊預料到會在雪樣中發現一些微塑料,但是他們對這麽高的含量感到驚訝。

Bergmann is a researcher at the Alfred-Wegener-Institute in the German city of Bremerhaven.
貝格曼是德國不萊梅哈芬市阿爾弗雷德韋格納研究所的一名研究員。

The study found the highest levels of microplastics came from the Bavarian Alps. One snow sample from the area had 154,000 microplastic particles per liter. Samples collected from the Arctic had much lower levels. However, even samples from the Arctic contained up to 14,000 particles per liter, the study found.
該研究發現,阿爾卑斯山脈巴伐利亞段的微塑料含量最高。采自該地區的一個雪樣中每升含有15.4萬個微塑料顆粒。從北極采集的雪樣的含量要低很多。然而研究發現,即使采自北極的雪樣中每升也含有多達1.4萬個塑料顆粒。

Earlier studies found signs of plastic in Arctic areas. Those microplastics were found in coastal areas, sea ice, the seafloor and the seawater's surface.
早期的研究在北極地區發現了塑料的蹤迹。那些微塑料是在北極的沿海地區、海冰、海底以及海面發現的。

The new study attempted to explore how some of the material could have been carried in the atmosphere. A limited number of earlier studies did find microplastics in the air of some cities, including Paris, Tehran and Dongguan, China.
這項新研究試圖探索一些物質如何被大氣攜帶旅行。爲數不多的早期研究確實在包括巴黎、德黑蘭和中國東莞在內的一些城市的空氣中發現了微塑料。

Bergmann said in a statement she believes the new study clearly shows that "the majority of the microplastic in the snow comes from the air." She said this idea is supported by research that studied the atmospheric movement of pollen from plants. In those studies, scientists confirmed pollen had traveled great distances to reach the Arctic.
貝格曼在一份聲明中表示,她認爲這項新研究明確表明“雪中大多數的微塑料來自于空氣。”她說這個想法得到了調查植物花粉大氣運動的研究等支持。在這些研究中,科學家們證實花粉長途旅行到了北極。

Other studies found that dust particles – which are similar to microplastics - traveled more than 3,500 kilometers from the Sahara Desert to the northeast Atlantic.
其它研究發現,與微塑料相似的塵埃顆粒從撒哈拉沙漠行程超過3500公裏到達了大西洋東北部。

Bergmann said the new study suggests that much of the microplastic found in Europe and the Arctic comes from the atmosphere and snow. "This additional transport route could also explain the high amounts of microplastic that we've found in the Arctic sea ice and the deep sea in previous studies," she said.
貝格曼表示,這項新的研究表明,在歐洲和北極發現的大部分微塑料都來自于大氣和降雪。她說:“這條額外的運輸路線也可以解釋我們之前的研究在北極海冰以及深海中發現的大量微塑料。”

The research team discovered many kinds of microplastics. Some were from paints commonly used to coat the surface of automobiles and ships. A rubber-like substance was also found that could have come from vehicle or boat parts or packaging materials, the report said.
該研究小組發現了多種類型的微塑料。一些出自通常用于噴塗在汽車和輪船表面的塗料。該報告稱,還發現了一種類似于橡膠的物質,它可能來自于汽車或輪船零件,或是包裝材料。

While there is growing concern about the effect of microplastics on the environment, scientists are still studying their possible harmful effects on humans and animals.
雖然人們越來越關注微塑料對環境的影響,但科學家們仍在研究它對人類和動物可能産生的有害影響。

Bergmann said she hopes the new study will lead to more research on this issue. She also said she believes that microscopic plastic particles should be included in worldwide observations of air pollution levels.
貝格曼表示,她希望這項新研究能夠引發更多關于這個問題的研究。她還表示,她認爲應該將微塑料顆粒納入全球空氣汙染水平監測當中。

"We really need to know what effects microplastics have on humans, especially if inhaled with the air that we breathe," Bergmann said.
貝格曼表示:“我們確實需要知道微塑料對人類有什麽影響,特別是我們通過空氣呼吸進入身體之後。”

I'm Bryan Lynn.
我是布萊恩·琳恩。(51VOA.COM原創翻譯,禁止轉載,違者必究!)