研究表明住院患者的最危險時刻不是手術室中

    A new study suggests that the deadliest time for many hospital patients is not when they are in the operating room. Instead, it is the period when patients are recovering in the hospital and after they go home.
    一項新的研究表明,許多住院患者最致命的時間不是在手術室的時候。相反,最致命是病人住院和出院後的康複期。

    Researchers examined medical records of more than 40,000 patients, aged 45 years and older. The records came from 28 hospitals in 14 countries. Doctors had performed surgery on each patient, but none of the operations was related to the heart.
    研究人員調查了4萬多名年齡在45歲以上(含)患者的醫療記錄。這些記錄來自14個國家的28家醫院。醫生對其中每位病人都進行了手術,但是手術都跟心髒無關。

    The researchers looked for patients with health problems or death within 30 days of surgery.
    研究人員查找了在手術30天內出現健康問題或死亡的患者。

    A total of five people died during the operation. That represents less than 1% of all patients. Another 500 patients, or 70%, died in the hospital. And 210 deaths, or 29%, did not happen until after patients were sent home.
    一共有5人在手術期間死亡,這占所有病人的比例不到1%。另外占70%比例的500名病人在醫院死亡,還有占29%的210名患者直到出院後才死亡。

    Nearly half of all the deaths were linked to one of three problems: major bleeding, heart damage and blood infections.
    近一半的死亡案例都跟大出血、心髒受損或血液感染這三大問題之一有關。

    P.J. Devereaux is with McMaster University in Canada and was the lead writer of a report on the study. The report was published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal.
    P.J. 德弗羅在加拿大麥克馬斯特大學任教,他也是這項研究報告的主要撰稿人。這篇報告發表在加拿大醫學會期刊上。

    Devereaux wrote that the research shows very few deaths happen in the operating room. He added that "there is a need to focus on post-operative care and transitional care into the home setting to improve outcomes." His comments were part of an email sent to the Reuters news agency.
    德弗羅寫道,該研究表明很少有患者死亡手術室。他還說:“有必要將重點放在術後護理以及家庭環境的過渡性護理中,以改善術後結果。”這些評論是他發給路透社的電子郵件的部分內容。

    Worldwide, 100 million patients age 45 and older have surgeries unrelated to heart-related issues every year.
    全球每年有1億名年齡在45歲以上(含)患者接受與心髒無關的手術。

    The researchers noted that technological and medical improvements have made such surgeries safer and less invasive in recent years. However, patients are also coming to the hospital sicker and being sent home with complex care needs.
    研究人員指出,近年來技術和醫療進步使得這類手術更加安全,創傷更小。然而,患者入院病情也更嚴重,出院後也有更複雜的護理需求。

    In the study, about half of the patients had high blood pressure. One in five had the disease diabetes, while 13% had heart disease.
    在該研究中,大約一半的患者患有高血壓。五分之一的患者患有糖尿病,還有13%患有心髒病。

    More than one-third of them came in only for low-risk treatments that were not emergency operations.
    其中三分之一的患者入院只是因爲並非緊急手術的低風險的治療。

    Patients who experienced major bleeding after surgery were more than two times as likely to die within 30 days as people who did not have this complication. In addition, patients who developed heart injuries were also more than twice as likely to die.
    手術後出現大出血的患者比未發生這種並發症的患者在30天內死亡的風險高出兩倍多。此外,發生心髒損傷的患者死亡的風險也高出兩倍多。

    The study was not a controlled experiment designed to identify which if any complications actually caused any deaths.
    該研究並非一項旨在確定哪些並發症會導致死亡的對照試驗。

    Barnaby Charles Reeves is with the University of Bristol in Britain. He told Reuters in an email that inflammation might be a common link to the health problems that were most responsible for deaths. He noted that, "Surgery causes a body-wide inflammatory reaction. This can lead to single or multi-organ failure which leads to death."
    巴納比·查爾斯·裏弗斯就職于英國布裏斯托大學。他在電子郵件中對路透社表示,炎症可能跟導致死亡的主要健康問題存在關聯。他指出:“手術引發全身炎症反應。這可能會導致單個或多個器官衰竭,從而導致死亡。”

    P.J. Devereaux said that patients might also not recognize that something is wrong when they begin to stop taking pain medication after surgery.
    德弗羅表示,患者可能也沒有意識到他們在術後開始停止服用止痛藥時出現了問題。

    The researchers called for more research into improved methods for observing the condition of hospital patients after surgery. They said these methods can help identify ways to lower the risk of death following an operation.
    研究人員呼籲要更深入研究術後住院患者病情監測的改良方法。他們表示,這些方法可以幫助確定降低術後死亡風險的途徑。

    I'm Jonathan Evans.
    我是喬納森·埃文斯。(51VOA.COM原創翻譯,禁止轉載,違者必究!)